This course is offered as a free online course in an effort to create more awareness about Human Trafficking.
Hope Risen (formerly known as Hope For Women) was founded in 2009 with the vision to spread love, hope and justice in the quest to end modern day slavery and exploitation. We are doing this through prevention and awareness initiatives carried out alongside direct interventions to rescue, restore and reintegrate women, men and children who have been exploited.
You can donate to Hope Risen to help them continue their work via Payfast or by contacting them on firstname.lastname@example.org. You can also become a volunteer, Cycle for Hope or become involved as a corporate as part of your Corporate Social Responsibility.
Trafficking thrives in secrecy: the less people know about it and the fewer who believe that it’s happening, the easier it is for traffickers to carry out their activities. That’s why we place a heavy emphasis on building awareness; because prevention is better than cure. Hope Risen educates the public on the inner-workings of this industry, both to arm people with the knowledge that can protect them from this fate, and to dismantle the systems that drive trafficking.
Source: The United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
Source: World Hope South Africa, schools curriculum
Human trafficking starts with the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring and handing off of victims. The victims are then threatened, forced or coerced into prostitution, sexual exploitation. forced labour, slavery, organ removal or forced marriage.
Sexual exploitation, such as forced prostitution, pornography, training to deal with particular fetishes, etc. This can be found happening in brothels as well as massage parlours and gentleman’s clubs, to name a few
Forced labour, which usually involves work that is difficult, dirty or dangerous. This commonly happens in industries such as fishing, mining and agriculture
Organ trafficking, referring to the forced removal and illegal sale of body parts, usually for the black market, “muthi” or the medical field where people are willing to pay a high price to skip the system.
Child exploitation and forced labour. Where mobilisation and exploitation are present with minors under the age of 18, it is considered child trafficking. Child labour is any work that is not suitable for children and will have a negative impact on their social, physical or emotional development. Examples include the textiles industry, and coffee and coco harvesting. Children are also vulnerable to sexual exploitation, such as pornography and molestation. They may also be targeted to “groom” them for a life in the sex industry when they are older.
Human Trafficking is an organised crime, so there is a whole structure of different roles involved in it: there’s the spotter, recruiter, buyer, seller, transporter, harbourer, financier, brothel keeper, pimp and clientele.
The system is such that even those among the perpetrator ring may not comprehend the magnitude of what they are involved in (take, for example, this story of X).
So what is the profile of the typical trafficker? What should we be on the lookout for?
The trafficker can be anyone. This is what makes it such a challenging crime to prevent. It can be gangs and syndicates or friends and family: 54% of cases involve strangers, while 46% of cases involve someone the victim already knows. Although men are the most common perpetrators, the number of women linked to trafficking offenses is growing, with human trafficking featuring a higher percentage of female traffickers than any other organised crime. Traffickers can be young, even teenagers as the story of 8 days shows us, or they can be an elderly couple as several other cases have revealed. They can be lay people, people entrenched in a wider lifestyle of crime, or even law enforcement and government officials.
And who are the people being trafficked? Again, they can be anyone. Women are a disproportionate percentage of the sex trafficking cases, while men are a larger percentage of labour trafficking and organ trafficking cases. Vulnerable groups are more likely to be targeted: children, women, refugees and lower income communities.
However, it is by no means limited to these people: a lonely adult looking for a relationship is vulnerable, middle to high income people seeking out new job opportunities are vulnerable. Awareness and vigilance are great measures to protect our communities from trafficking, but there is also a need to fight it at its roots since traffickers will always find ways to ensnare people that can be difficult or impossible to anticipate and pre-empt.
Moving, recruiting, selling, leasing, harbouring and so on of a human being. A person doesn’t have to be moved across borders to be considered “trafficked”. It can be within the country, and even from one house to another within the same area. The point is that they are being treated as property to be loaned out, moved about and controlled.
There are many means by which a recruiter ensnares a victim. They may deceive them with promises of work and a glorious lifestyle, take advantage of vulnerability – such as the trust of children or through a romantic relationship. They may abuse a position of authority and power. So it’s not always a dramatic kidnapping, but it does always involve forms of manipulation and psychological control.
Further to this, you will not always find trafficking victims locked up in cages or bound with chains. Traffickers use many ways to keep control; debt bondage, drug addiction and abuse tactics that have victims believing that they somehow deserve to be there, or that it is a product of their own choice rather than coercion and exploitation.
Finally, all human trafficking has one goal: exploitation. This includes blatant forms of exploitation and slavery, such as forced labour and forced removal of organs, but it also includes more insidious and discreet forms of exploitation: for example, paying labourers and women in the sex industry for their services, but only paying a tiny amount and then insisting that what they get paid has to cover rent at the brothel, or the flight that traffickers paid for to transport them to their new destination.
The following Red Flags can be used to help identify potential Human Trafficking cases. If you have come across an incident that may have the following Red Flags contact Hope Risen as soon as possible.
Book a speaker from the Hope Risen Foundation to raise awareness at your school, church, company or event. Visit www.hoperisen.org/book-a-speaker.